Diferencias en la respuesta fisiológica en el test Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 entre futbolistas de categoría cadete y juvenil

Kerman QUINTELA, Javier YANCI, Asier SANTIAGO, Aitor ITURRICASTILLO, Cristina GRANADOS

Resumen


Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron analizar las diferencias en las características
antropométricas y la respuesta física (distancia) y fisiológica (consumo de
oxigeno estimado, frecuencia cardiaca, temperatura timpánica y percepción subjetiva
del esfuerzo) en un test de campo de resistencia en futbolistas de distintas categorías
(cadete y juvenil), y examinar la relación existente entre las distintas variables
analizadas. Para ello 34 jóvenes futbolistas participaron en este estudio, 17 de ellos
cadetes (15,12 ± 0,69 años) y 17 juveniles (16,94 ± 0,89 años). A los futbolistas se
les midió la talla y la masa corporal, calculándose el índice de masa corporal (IMC).
Para determinar su resistencia aeróbica, los jugadores realizaron el test Yo-Yo Intermittent
Recovery Level 1, registrándose la distancia total recorrida, la temperatura
corporal pre y post-test y la percepción subjetiva del esfuerzo (RPE). Los futbolistas
de categoría juvenil presentaron mayores valores de masa corporal (11,9%) e IMC
(6,6%), y obtuvieron mejores valores en el test de resistencia que los cadetes (18,5%
y 4,4%, distancia recorrida y consumo máximo de oxígeno, respectivamente). Así
mismo, presentaron significativamente mayores valores en la percepción subjetiva
del esfuerzo muscular (RPEmus, 42,4%) y en la carga muscular percibida de la tarea
(RPEmus-TL, 72,2%) que los cadetes en ambos casos. Por último, se observaron
correlaciones significativas entre la distancia recorrida en el test de resistencia y de la
carga respiratoria percibida (RPEres-TL, r=0,62, p<0,05), así como con el RPEmusTL
(r=0,65, p<0,05) en los juveniles, mientras que en el caso de los cadetes solo
correlacionó con el RPEres-TL (r=0,80, p<0,001). Estas diferencias pueden ser debidas
al mayor desarrollo muscular de los juveniles respecto a los cadetes, aunque se
necesitan más estudios que confirmen dichos resultados.

Palabras clave


Fútbol; antropometría; resistencia; temperatura corporal; rpe.

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